Can meningitis cause focal neurological deficit?
Conclusions: Neurological sequelae occur in a substantial amount of patients following bacterial meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive impairment and epilepsy.
What are the focal neurological signs in meningitis?
Focal neurologic signs include isolated cranial nerve abnormalities (principally of cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and VII), which are present in 10-20% of patients. These result from increased intracranial pressure (ICP) or the presence of exudates encasing the nerve roots.
What are focal neurological deficits?
A focal neurologic deficit is a problem with nerve, spinal cord, or brain function. It affects a specific location, such as the left side of the face, right arm, or even a small area such as the tongue. Speech, vision, and hearing problems are also considered focal neurological deficits.
What causes focal neurological deficit?
Focal neurological deficits may be caused by a variety of medical conditions such as head trauma, tumors or stroke; or by various diseases such as meningitis or encephalitis or as a side effect of certain medications such as those used in anesthesia. Neurological soft signs, are a group of non-focal neurologic signs.
Is meningoencephalitis the same as meningitis?
Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord. The term encephalitis refers to inflammation of the brain itself. This may simply be a progression of meningitis or occur at the same time, depending on the cause. Sometimes this is referred to as meningoencephalitis.
How can you tell the difference between meningitis and encephalitis?
The hallmark signs of meningitis include some or all of the following: sudden fever, severe headache, nausea or vomiting, double vision, drowsiness, sensitivity to bright light, and a stiff neck. Encephalitis can be characterized by fever, seizures, change in behavior, and confusion and disorientation.
What is focal weakness?
Focal weakness usually denotes asymmetry or predominance of upper versus lower extremities. Focality should alert the clinician to potential neurologic etiology, sometimes requiring urgent intervention. For the purposes of discussion, focal weakness here will include symmetric weakness.
What is a focal stroke?
Focal symptoms of stroke include the following: Weakness or paresis that may affect a single extremity, one half of the body, or all 4 extremities. Facial droop. Monocular or binocular blindness. Blurred vision or visual field deficits.
What are some neurological deficits?
Loss of balance. Mental function problems, such as memory loss. Vision changes. Walking problems. Weakness of the arms or legs.
What is a permanent neurological deficit?
Abstract. Objective: Permanent neurological deficit (PND) is a relatively rare but serious complication of cardiac surgery, associated with a high mortality and a poor prognosis for an acceptable quality of life.