What is the pathophysiology of hypoparathyroidism?

What is the pathophysiology of hypoparathyroidism?

Hypoparathyroidism in a broad sense is caused by a parathyroid hormone (PTH) deficiency or resistance, leading to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. PTH deficiency can be result from destruction or hypoplasia/agenesis of the parathyroid gland, or the impaired synthesis or secretion of PTH.

What medication treats hypoparathyroidism?


  • Oral calcium carbonate tablets. Oral calcium supplements can increase calcium levels in your blood.
  • Vitamin D. High doses of vitamin D, generally in the form of calcitriol, can help your body absorb calcium and eliminate phosphorus.
  • Magnesium.
  • Thiazide diuretics.
  • Parathyroid hormone (Natpara).

What is the most common treatment for hypoparathyroidism?

Unlike most other hormonal deficits, hypoparathyroidism is not treated with replacement of the missing hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH). Currently, the standard treatment for hypoparathyroidism consists of activated vitamin D (calcitriol) and calcium supplements. Some people may also need magnesium supplementation.

What does hypoparathyroidism cause?

This makes blood calcium levels fall (hypocalcaemia) and blood phosphorus levels rise (hyperphosphataemia), which can cause a wide range of symptoms, including muscle cramps, pain and twitching. Treatment for hypoparathyroidism involves taking supplements, usually for life, to restore calcium and phosphorus levels.

How is hypoparathyroidism diagnosed?

A diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism is made based upon identification of characteristic symptoms, a detailed patient history, a thorough clinical evaluation and a variety of specialized tests. Blood tests can reveal abnormal levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone.

Who gets hypoparathyroidism?

Hypoparathyroidism affects males and females in equal numbers. The incidence and prevalence of hypoparathyroidism in the general population are unknown. There are approximately 70,000 people with hypoparathyroidism in the United States. Hypoparathyroidism can affect individuals of any age.

What is the most common form of hypoparathyroidism?

Postsurgical hypoparathyroidism is the most common type of hypoparathyroidism. Patients with this condition have hypocalcemia after surgery, typically anterior neck surgery.

Can hypoparathyroidism cause weight gain?

Parathyroid disease and hyperparathyroidism are associated with weight gain. The worries about gaining weight after parathyroid surgery are understandable but unfounded. It is a myth that parathyroid surgery and removing a parathyroid tumor causes you to gain weight.

What are the signs and symptoms of hypoparathyroidism?

Signs and symptoms of hypoparathyroidism can include: Tingling or burning (paresthesia) in your fingertips, toes and lips. Muscle aches or cramps in your legs, feet, abdomen or face. Twitching or spasms of your muscles, particularly around your mouth, but also in your hands, arms and throat. Fatigue or weakness. Painful menstruation.

How is hypoparathyroidism treated in the long term?

Because hypoparathyroidism is usually a long-lasting (chronic) disorder, treatment generally is lifelong, as are regular blood tests to determine whether calcium in particular is at normal levels. Your doctor will adjust your dose of supplemental calcium if your blood-calcium levels rise or fall.

Why is hypoparathyroidism such a rare disease?

The “ This ” no one had seen before is hypoparathyroidism, a rare disease that affects approximately 70,000 Americans. Hypoparathyroidism is when you don’t make enough parathyroid hormone. In my case it was because my parathyroids were removed when I had total thyroidectomy back in ’98.

What foods can you eat if you have hypoparathyroidism?

Your doctor may tell you to: Limit foods with phosphates, like soda and other fizzy drinks. Eat foods high in calcium such as low-fat dairy products, dark green vegetables like collard greens and kale, and foods with added calcium like some cereals and orange juices.


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