How many species of Legionella are there?
Currently, the Legionella genus includes 52 species and more than 70 different serogroups, and more than 20 species have been proven to be causative agents of Legionnaires’ disease (LD). The species Legionella pneumophila accounts for approximately 90% of confirmed cases of legionellosis, and L.
What is the most common species of Legionella in New Zealand?
The predominant species responsible for cases of legionellosis in New Zealand are L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae (Graham et al 2012).
Are there different strains of Legionella?
To date, more than 58 Legionella species have been described in published articles. Of these approximately 25 are linked to disease, namely Legionella pneumophila species serogroup 1, 3, 4, and 6. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is the most virulent strain causing most infections.
What illnesses does the Legionella species cause?
Legionella bacteria can cause a serious type of pneumonia (lung infection) called Legionnaires’ disease. Legionella bacteria can also cause a less serious illness called Pontiac fever.
What are signs of Legionnaires disease?
Legionnaires’ disease symptoms are similar to other types of pneumonia and it often looks the same on a chest x-ray.
- Shortness of breath.
- Muscle aches.
How is Legionnaires disease spread?
How It Spreads. After Legionella grows and multiplies in a building water system, water containing Legionella can spread in droplets small enough for people to breathe in. People can get Legionnaires’ disease or Pontiac fever when they breathe in small droplets of water in the air that contain the bacteria.
How do you test for Legionnaires disease?
The most commonly used laboratory test for diagnosis of Legionnaires’ disease is the urinary antigen test (UAT), which detects a molecule of the Legionella bacterium in urine. If the patient has pneumonia and the test is positive, then you should consider the patient to have Legionnaires’ disease.
How do you test water for Legionnaires disease?
When a legionella testing service is called in to sample water, there are two main methods they can use: swab and bottle. Swab sampling involves collecting a surface sample with a sterile swab.
How is Legionnaires disease treated?
Legionnaires’ disease requires treatment with antibiotics and most cases of this illness can be treated successfully. Healthy people usually get better after being sick with Legionnaires’ disease, but they often need care in the hospital.
How do you catch Legionnaires disease?
How you get Legionnaires’ disease. You can get Legionnaires’ disease if you breathe in tiny droplets of water containing bacteria that causes the infection. It’s usually caught in places like hotels, hospitals or offices where the bacteria have got into the water supply. It’s less common to catch it at home.
How many species of Legionella have been described?
It’s quite common to find Legionella species other than Legionella pneumophila in cooling towers and water distribution systems. To date, more than 58 Legionella species have been described in published articles. Of these approximately 25 are linked to disease, namely Legionella pneumophila species serogroup 1, 3, 4, and 6.
Which is the most virulent strain of Legionella pneumophila?
Of these approximately 25 are linked to disease, namely Legionella pneumophila species serogroup 1, 3, 4, and 6. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is the most virulent strain causing most infections. The remaining non-pneumophila species (found in water and soil) are considered non-pathogenic until shown to cause disease.
When was legionellosis first identified in the United States?
The bacterium L. pneumophila was first identified in 1977, as the cause of an outbreak of severe pneumonia in a convention centre in the USA in 1976.
Can you get Legionella dumoffi from water spray?
All forms of Legionella bacteria can be inhaled via water spray or droplets (an aerosol) if the circumstances allow for it. A handful of Legionella species, including Legionella dumoffi and Legionella bozemanae, can trigger cases of pneumonia in people who become exposed to the bacteria.