What does ERK pathway mean?
The extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is one of the major signaling cassettes of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway.
Why is the MAPK pathway important?
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays a role in the regulation of gene expression, cellular growth, and survival. Abnormal MAPK signaling may lead to increased or uncontrolled cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. Research into the MAPK pathway has shown it to be important in some cancers.
How does active ERK affect gene expression?
Downstream, activated ERK regulates growth factor-responsive targets in the cytosol and also translocates to the nucleus where it phosphorylates a number of transcription factors regulating gene expression (Figure 3).
Is RAF a MAPK?
RAF, and ERK (also known as MAPK) are both serine/threonine-selective protein kinases. MEK is a serine/tyrosine/threonine kinase.
What is the role of the ERK pathway?
The ERK pathway plays an important role of integrating external signals from the presence of mitogens such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) into signaling events promoting cell growth and proliferation in many mammalian cell types.
What is the role of MAPK / ERK in cell proliferation?
The literatures were searched extensively and this review was performed to review the role of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, senescence and apoptosis. Keywords: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase; mitogen-activated protein kinases; signaling pathway.
What are the effects of excessive activation of ERK?
Excessive activation of upstream proteins and kinases in the ERK pathway has been shown to induce various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, developmental disorders and neurological disorders ( 18 – 22 ). Since ERK1 and ERK2 are very similar, the singular form of ERK is used in this review, although two subtypes exist.
What happens to ERK5 in a phosphorylated state?
In the non-phosphorylated state, ERK5 is in an inactive conformation and its N- and C-terminal domains are interconnected in the cytoplasm. Activation of MEK5 induces open conformation of ERK5, exposes the NLS, alleviates self-inhibition and promotes ERK5 translocation to the nucleus ( 35 – 37 ).