Does ertapenem cover CTX M?
Ertapenem resistance has been reported in Klebsiella pneumoniae–producing CTX-M–type ESBLs that have a permeability defect (3,4,14).
What is the meaning of extended-spectrum beta lactamase?
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) are enzymes that confer resistance to most beta-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and the monobactam aztreonam. Infections with ESBL-producing organisms have been associated with poor outcomes.
What is KPC gene?
The Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) enzyme, encoded by alleles of the bla KPC gene, represents one of the five major carbapenemase families, others being the VIM, IMP and NDM metallo-beta-lactamases, and the OXA-48-like oxacillinases3.
What antibiotics are resistant to ESBL?
ESBLs confer resistance to most beta-lactam antibiotics, including the penicillins, oxyimino-cephalosporins (e.g., ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and ceftazadime), and monobactams (e.g., aztreonam). Notably, ESBLs can be inhibited—albeit to various degrees—by beta-lactamase inhibitors.
Do you have ESBL for life?
ESBL-producing bacteria can live on surfaces for days, weeks and months. It is important to clean surfaces often with a disinfectant.
What antibiotics are used to treat ESBL?
Commonly used medications to treat ESBL-involved infections include:
- carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem)
- cephamycins (cefoxitin and cefotetan)
- beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, tazobactam, or sulbactam)
- colistin, if all other medications have failed.
Is there such a thing as Klebsiella pneumoniae?
CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are infrequently reported in the United States.
What kind of PCR is used for Klebsiella pneumoniae?
PCR amplification of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, and blaKPC genes in K. pneumoniae and E. coli clinical isolates was performed by using a consensus primer pair specific to each type of β-lactamase as described ( 20–22 ). A multiplex PCR was developed and used for simultaneous detection of blaCTX-M (551 bp) and blaTEM (972 bp) genes.
Which is multidrug resistant enzyme produces Klebsiella pneumoniae?
This study demonstrates the recent emergence and polyclonal spread of multidrug resistant CTX-M–producing K. pneumoniae isolates among patients in a hospital setting in the United States. CTX-M enzymes are a group of class A extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) that are rapidly spreading among Enterobacteriaceae worldwide ( 1 ).
Where are ESBL and CTX-M enzymes found?
By contrast, SHV- and TEM-type ESBL enzymes are primarily found in ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli clinical isolates in North America ( 3 ). In the United States, CTX-M–like ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was first reported in 2003, when CTX-M enzymes were detected in 9 E. coli clinical isolates from 5 US states ( 4 ).