What are the seven types of episodic ataxia?
The following information is based on reports within single families.
- Episodic ataxia type 3 (EA3). EA3 is associated with vertigo, tinnitus, and migraine headaches.
- Episodic ataxia type 4 (EA4).
- Episodic ataxia type 5 (EA5).
- Episodic ataxia type 6 (EA6).
- Episodic ataxia type 7 (EA7).
- Episodic ataxia type 8 (EA8).
What causes episodic ataxia?
Episodic ataxia is one type of ataxia among a group of inherited diseases of the central nervous system. Episodic ataxia may be the result of genetic defects that lead to impairment of specific nerve fibers that carry messages to and from the brain to control movement of the body.
Does episodic ataxia go away?
The symptoms of episodic ataxia may disappear as a person gets older, although sometimes the condition gets gradually worse over time. Medication can often help control attacks, and life expectancy is usually normal.
Is ataxia a form of MS?
Ataxia is common in MS but is also seen in several other conditions including diabetic polyneuropathy, acute transverse myelitis, vacuolar myelopathy, tumor or cord compression and hereditary forms of ataxia.
What are the different types of episodic ataxia?
Episodic ataxia. Episodic ataxia ( EA) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sporadic bouts of ataxia (severe discoordination) with or without myokymia (continuous muscle movement). There are seven types recognised but the majority are due to two recognized entities. Ataxia can be provoked by stress, startle,…
How is acetazolamide used to treat episodic ataxia?
Some patients respond to acetazolamide though others do not. Typically, episodic ataxia presents as bouts of ataxia induced by startle, stress, or exertion. Some patients also have continuous tremors of various motor groups, known as myokymia.
How are KCNA1 mutations related to episodic ataxia?
Table 1. Mutations in KCNA1 related to episodic ataxia type-1 Mutation Position Current amplitude (% wild-type) Activation Activation V½ τ V174F S1 7.6% 25mV positive Unchanged I177N S1 5.9% 60mV positive Slower F184C S1 15.1% 24mV positive Slower
Is there such thing as episodic ataxia with nystagmus?
EA2 is also referred to as episodic ataxia with nystagmus, hereditary paroxysmal cerebellopathy, familial paroxysmal ataxia and acetazolamide-responsive hereditary paroxysmal cerebellar ataxia (AHPCA). There are currently 19 mutations associated with EA2, though only 3 have been characterized electrophysiologically, table 2 and figure 2.