What is external hydrocephalus?
External hydrocephalus (EH) is a condition in which infants with rapidly enlarging heads are found to have a CT scan that shows widening of the subarachnoid space with mild or no ventricular dilation.
What causes benign external hydrocephalus?
As most reported cases of external hydrocephalus seem to be idiopathic, various theories regarding the underlying pathophysiology have been presented. The most common theory suggests that external hydrocephalus is caused by immature arachnoid villi not able to absorb the CSF that is produced continuously .
What is Bess syndrome?
Benign enlargement of subarachnoid space (BESS) in infancy is the most common cause of macrocephaly and characterized clinically with large head circumference, normal or mildly motor and language delay and increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space with normal ventricles or mild ventriculomegaly.
What is benign Macrocrania?
Benign Macrocrania of Infancy (BMI) is a clinical entity of relative frequency in the first years of life. While usually self-limited, it may lead to clinical complications that go beyond an increased head circumference, such as a higher incidence of sudural hematomas resulting from incidental, low-energy head trauma.
How do you find the subarachnoid space?
The subarachnoid space is measured in perpendicular fashion, with electronic calipers, from the edge of the triangular sagittal sinus to the surface of the cortex. The right subarachnoid space is 0.17 cm, and the left is 0.21 cm, resulting in a mean measurement of 1.9 mm.
What happens if you have too much cerebrospinal fluid?
Cerebrospinal fluid normally flows through the ventricles and bathes the brain and spinal column. But the pressure of too much cerebrospinal fluid associated with hydrocephalus can damage brain tissues and cause a range of brain function problems.
Which is the best definition of hydrocephalus?
Hydrocephalus in which a blockage at any location in the ventricular system prevents flow of cerebrospinal fluid to the subarachnoid space. A type of hydrocephalus with enlarged ventricles of the brain with no increase in the spinal fluid pressure or no demonstrable block to the outflow of spinal fluid.
What are the possible side effects of hydrocephalus?
Possible complications include: 1 Infection 2 Bleeding 3 A shunt that doesn’t work, and may drain too much or not enough fluid
When does hydrocephalus ex vacuo occur in the brain?
Hydrocephalus ex-vacuo occurs when stroke or traumatic injury cause damage to the brain. In these cases, brain tissue may actually shrink. NPH is an abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain’s ventricles that may result from a subarachnoid hemorrhage, head trauma, infection, tumor, or complications of surgery.
How does a baby with hydrocephalus look like?
Key points about hydrocephalus A baby with hydrocephalus has extra cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) around the brain. The baby’s head may look larger than normal. This is a rare condition. A healthcare provider may diagnose this condition during an ultrasound in pregnancy. The goal of treatment is to reduce the pressure inside your baby’s head.