What is the cough reflex mechanism?

What is the cough reflex mechanism?

The mechanism of a cough is as follows: Diaphragm (innervated by phrenic nerve) and external intercostal muscles (innervated by segmental intercostal nerves) contract, creating a negative pressure around the lung. Air rushes into the lungs in order to equalise the pressure.

What is the meaning of cough reflex?

Cough, an expulsive reflex initiated when the respiratory tract is irritated by infection, noxious fumes, dust, or other types of foreign bodies. The reflex results in a sudden expulsion of air from the lungs that carries with it excessive secretions or foreign material from the respiratory tract.

What is the pathophysiology of cough?

Cough serves to clear the airways when there are (1) large amounts of inhaled material, (2) large amounts of mucus due to excessive secretions or impaired mucociliary clearance, and (3) large amounts of abnormal substances such as edema fluid or pus. Each cough involves a complex reflex arc.

What are two types of receptors involved in the cough reflex?

Their two main categories are rapidly adapting receptors (RARs) and C fiber receptors. Both types’ respond to a wide variety of mechanical and chemical irritants. The RARs are the main sensory complex responsible . for cough.

How do I check my cough reflex?

For the reflex cough test, a 20% solution of L-tartaric acid is dissolved in 2 mL of sterile normal saline. Using a nasal nebulizer, the patient inhales the solution, which stimulates cough receptors in the vestibule of the larynx and initiates the laryngeal cough reflex.

What are the two main functions of coughing?

Coughing is an important reflex that helps protect your airway and lungs against irritants. Coughing can propel air and particles out of your lungs and throat at speeds close to 50 miles per hour. Occasional coughing is normal as it helps clear your throat and airway of germs, mucus and dust.

What is the pathophysiology of cough in pneumonia?

Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. A variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can cause pneumonia.

What is the reason for persistent cough?

While it can sometimes be difficult to pinpoint the problem that’s triggering a chronic cough, the most common causes are tobacco use, postnasal drip, asthma and acid reflux. Fortunately, chronic cough typically disappears once the underlying problem is treated.

How do you stop a coughing reflex?

How to stop coughing

  1. drinking plenty of water.
  2. sipping hot water with honey.
  3. taking over-the-counter (OTC) cough medicines.
  4. taking a steamy shower.
  5. using a humidifier in the home.

How do you stimulate a coughing reflex?

The cough reflex is initiated by activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers and the mechanically-sensitive cough receptors. Stimuli initiating cough through activation of one or both of these vagal afferent nerves include capsaicin, acid, bradykinin, cinnamaldehyde, cigarette smoke and non-isotonic aerosols.

Can coughing damage your lungs?

A cough in and of itself is not dangerous. In fact, coughing is a natural reflex that helps clear the airways and expels irritants like mucus and dust from the lungs.

What is the function of the cough reflex?

The cough reflex is an important defence mechanism which clears the airways of irritants by forcefully expelling air from the respiratory tract. This article will discuss the cough reflex arc, its phases and clinical correlations.

How does the vagus nerve cause the cough reflex?

The vagus nerve then synapses with motor neurons, delivering information to effector muscles and causing the cough reflex to occur. Various respiratory muscles contract to allow initiation of the cough reflex. Irritation of cough receptors causes the vocal cords to open more widely, allowing more air to enter the lungs.

What causes a person to have a weak cough reflex?

The reflex is impaired in the person whose abdominals and respiratory muscles are weak. This problem can be caused by disease conditions that lead to muscle weakness or paralysis, by prolonged inactivity, or as outcome of surgery involving these muscles.

Where are the cough receptors located in the body?

Physiology. The cough receptors or rapidly adapting irritant receptors are located mainly on the posterior wall of the trachea, pharynx, and at the carina of trachea, the point where the trachea branches into the main bronchi. The receptors are less abundant in the distal airways, and absent beyond the respiratory bronchioles.

Back To Top