Which gene is responsible for isoniazid resistance?

Which gene is responsible for isoniazid resistance?

INH-resistance is associated in a number of genes, including katG (catalase-peroxidase gene), kasA (β-keto-acyl-АСР-synthase gene), ndh (NADH-dehydrogenase), inhA region (NADH-dependent-ACP-reductase InhA gene) and ahpC region (alkyl-hydroxyperoxide-reductase gene).

What causes resistance to isoniazid?

In addition to katG mutations, isoniazid resistance arises from mutations in the promoter region of inhA, which lead to overexpression of isoniazid’s target InhA, requiring higher doses of the drug to achieve complete inhibition3.

Is resistance to isoniazid common?

Assuming that isoniazid (INH) resistance is underreported and it is in fact double as common as reported in year zero (30% instead 15% in new cases), the addition of a test for INH resistance still would have only a small effect on reducing the proportion of INH resistant cases and multi-drug resistant cases beyond …

Is Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid?

Introduction. Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is TB disease caused by M. tuberculosis organisms that are resistant to at least one first-line anti-TB drug. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) is resistant to more than one anti-TB drug and at least isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF).

What is rifampicin resistance?

Rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) defined as resistance to rifampicin detected using genotypic or phenotypic methods with or without resistance to other first-line anti-TB drugs. MDR-TB/RR-TB has been an area of growing concern to human health worldwide and posing a threat to the control of TB.

What type of antibiotic is isoniazid?

Isoniazid is in a class of medications called antituberculosis agents. It works by killing the bacteria that cause tuberculosis.

What are the side effects of isoniazid?

What are the possible side effects of isoniazid?

  • sudden weakness or ill feeling, or fever for 3 days or longer;
  • pain in your upper stomach (may spread to your back), nausea, loss of appetite;
  • dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);
  • vision changes, pain behind your eyes;

Is isoniazid an acid or a base?

Preparation. Isoniazid is an isonicotinic acid derivative.

How long is treatment for MDR-TB?

MDR- and XDR-TB need prolonged treatment duration, from 18 to 24 months after sputum culture conversion, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) [2]. A prolonged duration of treatment may lead to poor adherence, higher cost and undue toxicity.

What causes rifampicin resistance?

Rifampicin, as the most effective first-line antituberculosis drug, also develops resistance due to the mutation on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) RNA polymerase.

How is rifampicin resistance detected?

Rifampin resistance is particularly amenable to detection by rapid genotypic assays because 95% of all rifampin-resistant strains contain mutations localized in an 81-bp region of the bacterial RNA polymerase gene, rpoB, which encodes the active site of the enzyme (14, 21).

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